ASHKENAZI, SOLOMON


ASHKENAZI, SOLOMON
ASHKENAZI, SOLOMON (c. 1520–1602), Turkish physican and diplomat; born in Udine, northern Italy. His father Nathan apparently belonged to the basevi family, the name "Ashkenazi" indicating German origin. After studying medicine at Padua, Solomon went to Cracow, where he served for 16 years as court physician at the court of Sigismund II Augustus. In 1564, he settled in Constantinople, where he was physician and dragoman to Marcantonio Barbaro, the Venetian Bailo, and to the grand vizier, Mehmet Sokollu. During the war with Venice which broke out in 1570 (largely through the influence of joseph nasi , duke of Naxos) Barbaro employed him for secret communications with the grand vizier, Nasi's political rival. After the Turkish disaster at Lepanto, Ashkenazi conducted the preliminary negotiations which led to the peace treaty of 1573. In the following year he was sent to Venice as the vizier's personal representative to propose an alliance to the Venetian government. It was determined that he should be treated as though he were an ambassador from the sultan, and he was formally received in this capacity by the doge and signoria in 1574. During the following decade, as "Aleman Oglou," Ashkenazi   continued to wield great influence. He claimed to be responsible for the exertion of Turkish support when Henri de Valois was elected to the Polish throne in 1573, and when the Polish throne was again vacant in 1574–5 he promised to secure the support of the Sublime Porte for the duke of Ferrara. He advised the grand duke of Tuscany on procedure when the latter wished to resume diplomatic relations with Turkey in 1578. In 1583 his services were used to settle a minor dispute between the English and Venetian representatives. In 1586 he signed the preliminary articles of the treaty with Spain on behalf of the sultan. In 1591, he used his influence to secure the appointment as voivode of Moldavia of Emanuel Aron (who was probably of Jewish extraction). When he went to Jassy in 1593 in the hope of obtaining compensation for his efforts, he was handed over to the prince of Transylvania and thrown into jail; ultimately, the English ambassador in Constantinople secured his release. He died shortly afterwards. His final diplomatic activities took place under greatly changed circumstances during the reign of the Sultan Murad III, whose attitude to the Jews in the empire was negative. His widow, Boula Eksati, inherited some of his medical secrets, and early in the 17th century cured the boy-sultan Ahmed I of smallpox. His son, Nathan Ashkenazi, likewise a physician, was officially received by the doge when he visited Venice in 1605, probably on a secret diplomatic mission, bringing letters of recommendation from the sultan. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: M. Brosch, Geschichten aus dem Leben dreier Grosswesire (Gotha, 1899), 34–42, passim; C. Roth, The House of Naxos (1948); M.A. Levy, Don Joseph Nasi (Ger., 1859); Rosanes, Togarmah, 3 (1938), 349–54; C. Roth, in: Oxford Slavonic Papers, 9 (1960), 8–20. ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Galanté, ISIS, 9, 86–87; idem, in: Sinai, 3 (1940), 462–73; A. Aschkenasy, in: RHMH, 128 (1979), 5–10; S.W. Baron, Social and Religious History, 18, 130–31, 484–85; B. Arbel, in: G. Benzoni (ed.), Gli ebrei e Venezia (secoli xiv–xviii) (1987); B. Arbel, in: Il mondo ebraico (1991), 105–28; M. Rozen, in: A. Rodrigue (ed.), Ottoman and Turkish Jewry, Community and Leadership (1992), 157; A. Levy, in: A. Levy (ed.), The Jews of the Ottoman Empire (1994), 76–77, 720; B. Arbel, Jews and Venetians in the Early-Modern Eastern Mediterranean (1995), 77–94. (Cecil Roth / Leah Bornstein-Makovetsky (2nd ed.)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • ASHKENAZI, BEZALEL BEN ABRAHAM — (c. 1520–1591/94), talmudist and halakhic authority. Ashkenazi was born in Jerusalem or in Safed, where he studied in his youth under Israel di curiel . About 1540 he went to Egypt where he studied in Cairo under david b. solomon ibn Abi Zimra.… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Solomon Ayllon — (born in the Orient 1664 (1660?); died Amsterdam, April 101728) was haham of the Sephardic congregations in London and Amsterdam, and a follower of Shabbethai Ẓebi. His name is derived from a town in the Spanish province Segovia, of the name of… …   Wikipedia

  • ASHKENAZI, ABRAHAM BEN JACOB — (1811–1880), Sephardi chief rabbi of Ereẓ Israel. Ashkenazi was born in Larissa, in Greece, but c. 1820 his family settled in Jerusalem where he studied under Samuel Arvaẓ, and was successively appointed a dayyan in the bet din of Benjamin… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • ASHKENAZI, ẒEVI HIRSCH BEN JACOB — (also known as the Ḥakham Zevi; 1660–1718), rabbi and halakhist. Both his father, Jacob Sak, a renowned scholar, and his maternal grandfather, ephraim b. jacob ha kohen , had escaped from Vilna to Moravia during the 1655 Cossack uprising. It was… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • ASHKENAZI, JOSEPH — (1525–1577), annotator of and commentator on the Mishnah. Ashkenazi, known as ha Tanna of Safed, was the son in law of R. Aaron b. Gershon Land, who was rabbi in Prague and later headed the bet din of the Poznan community. Ashkenazi fought… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • ASHKENAZI, DAN — (late 13th–early 14th centuries), German talmudist. No details are available of his life in Germany, which he left c. 1300 following the rindfleisch persecutions. He migrated to Spain and settled in Toledo, where he founded a yeshivah. He engaged …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • ASHKENAZI, NAPHTALI BEN JOSEPH — (c. 1540–1602), rabbi in Safed. Ashkenazi studied in the two great yeshivot of the Ashkenazi community in Safed and was later appointed preacher there. He suffered great privation as a result of the deterioration in the economic situation and in… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Solomon Adeni — Solomon ben Joshua Adeni (Hebrew: שלמה בן יהושע) was an Mizrahi Jewish author and Talmudist, who lived during the first half of the 17th century at Sanaa and Aden in southern Arabia, from which town he received the name Adeni or the Adenite. He… …   Wikipedia

  • ASHKENAZI, MALKIEL — (d. c. 1620), kabbalist. He probably settled first at Safed, where he was close to the circle of Isaac luria s disciples, and subsequently in Hebron. He was probably the rabbi of Hebron and, according to reports that Ḥ.J.D. Azulai heard from the… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • ASHKENAZI, SAUL BEN MOSES HA-KOHEN — (c. 1470–1523), philosopher. Ashkenazi was born in Candia, Crete, and studied there with elijah delmedigo . Later he lived in Constantinople. His best known work is a set of 12 questions directed to isaac abrabanel concerning the proper… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.